AY2015 GSDM Student Initiative Report
Reginal Aerospace Industrial Clusters and its Technological Basis
Regional aerospace cluster, small and medium-sized enterprises, authentication
2）Main applicants (Name, Department, School, Title)
Fuminori Yanagimoto, M2, Dept. of Systems Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering
Nobuyuki Sakai, M2, Graduate School of Public Policy
Yoshinari Kobayashi, D1, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Graduate School of Engineering
3）Project Faculty member(s)
Yuko Nakamura, Center for Aviation Innovation Research, Project Research Associate
Masaru Yarime, Graduate School of Public Policy, Project Associate Professor
4）Departments and schools related to this project
Dept. Systems Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering
Depts. Aeronautics and Astronautics, Graduate School of Engineering
Innovation Policy Research Center
Center for Aviation Innovation Research
Graduate School of Public Policy
【Background and objectives】
Recently, so-called “regional aeronautics cluster” has been the focus of widespread attention. In Japan, medium and small-size enterprises possess high skills and form the basis of various industries. Making airplanes requires high skills, as well as knowledge and experience, from electrical devices to mechanics structures, and the Japanese medium and small-size enterprises are expected to play important roles in this process. On the other hand, medium and small-size enterprises do not have enough vitality to enter into the aviation industry, so that the established of an “industrial cluster” is needed.
In the US, the aviation industries, airlines, and airports play an essential role in establishing clusters; Europa has the European Aerospace Cluster Partnership 21, and so on. Japan has slipped behind in clustering.
Japanese aviation industries have only provided parts of airplanes, after the prohibition of manufacturing airplanes ordered by GHQ in the immediate postwar period, and the commercial fiasco of the YS-11, except for sales to the JSDF. The output of aviation industries in Japan is about only 2.5% of the automobile industry and the value is 19% of the one in US. However, some Japanese enterprises have emerged as Tier 1 suppliers, and the rate of production of Boeing 787 in domestic enterprises reaches 35%. In addition to them, some projects, such as MRJ or Honda jet, are under development, and P-1, C-2 and US-2, which are Japanese military airplanes, begin to be introduced to commercial use. In these circumstances, medium and small-size enterprises are the basis of Japanese aviation industry, and their strengthening by means of clustering is important to promote the future of Japanese aviation.
Presently, there are already more than ten aviation regional clusters, such as: the “Special Zone to Create Asia No.1 Aerospace Industrial Cluster” in Aichi, Gifu, Mie Prefecture; the “Next-generation Aviation Parts Suppliers Network (so-called OWO)” in Osaka, the “Advanced Manufacturing Association of Tokyo Enterprises for Resolution of Aviation System” (AMATERAS) in Tokyo and so on. The number of participant enterprises to the present clusters is estimated over 500 and it is expected to positively influence to Japanese economy. But, although the entry barrier of aviation industries is much higher than one of other industries, and the support by governments is vital, there are only a handful of published studies about comparing aviation industrial clusters, and those did not focus on the characteristics of aviation industries. (An example of the characteristics to be studied is particularly in the burden of R&D, authentication (JIS Q 9100 and Nadcap) and so on). International expansion is an essential aspect in thinking about how to promote Japanese aviation industries, because this business entails global dimension, but it is difficult for Japanese medium and small enterprises to advance to international markets by themselves. Moreover, the positive implications of promoting clustering cannot be sufficient.
Considering the above, this project is organized in order to contribute to the growth of the aviation industrial clusters, and to deepen our understanding of how enterprises can be supported politically. In this year, we will implement preliminary investigations and interviews, and if possible, in next financial year, the research will be further developed from the obtained results.
【Content and methods】
In AY2015, investigations as listed below have been implemented.
・Collecting data about the present situation
We collected the information about aviation industrial clusters in Japan and overseas, especially concerning the behavior of medium and small enterprises in the aviation industrial clusters.
・Collecting data about present study of industrial clusters
The concept of industrial cluster has been applied to various fields. Drafting a literature review of the current studies on industrial clusters, and evaluate the possibility of application to aviation industrial clusters is needed.
To study the two above mentioned topics, we have implemented a survey of papers and interviewed two experts. The detail is written below.
Fuminori Yanagimoto, Dept. Systems Innovation, 2nd year of Master candidate
Nobuyuki Sakai, Graduate School of Public Policy, 2nd year of Master candidate
Yoshinari Kobayashi, Depts. Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1st year of Doctor candidate
6）Interdisciplinary and social aspect
The research on industrial clusters requires wide knowledge in geography, economics, sociology of knowledge, and so on. Of course, airplanes are composed of high-technology parts, and research requires engineering knowledge.
The aviation industry is considered as the next Japanese main industry, and it is growing. So, by studying that industry, we can get some insight about how to promote the future industries of Japan. The ultimate goal of this project is to publish a policy proposal on how to promote the Japanese aviation industry.
The implemented contents of this SIP in AY2015 are as follows.
During this year, we mainly collected Japanese papers and reviewed them. This study showed that the aviation industry has a high entry barrier, while quality assurance and research & development capacity are problems for medium and small size enterprises and their consortia. Porter has convincingly defined a cluster as a “geographically proximate group” where therefore geographical integration is important. For example in Japan, there are many companies and factories around Toyota city. According to this concept, the Chukyo area has a comparative advantage in the aviation industry.
We completed two interviews.
the first with Mr. Senda, who committed to the establishment and management of the “Manten project”, which is Japan’s first aviation industrial consortium. He articulated the view that Japanese aviation industrial clusters are not “clusters”, but also “consortia”, because there is not enough integration among enterprises, universities, and government. Medium and small size enterprises lack R&D capacities, so the assistance from universities is important. However, Japanese aviation industry clusters includes only enterprises and the commitment of governments is not sufficient.
Considering clusters in other areas and fields, Kobe and Hamamatsu are establishing each one cluster (Kobe: life science, Hamamatsu: opt electronics industry) under the strong cooperation among local governments, universities and enterprises. A reason of this situation is supposed to be that there are only a few universities which have a department of aeronautics. Even in Chukyo area, the cooperation among them is not enough and the clusters in Europe and America are much superior compared to Japanese clusters.
Our second interview was held in Niigata. We interviewed Mr. Yamanouchi, who is the president of Yamanouchi Seisakusho and visited JASPA’s factory, which has been established based on the “Manten project”. The factory is rare in pursing automation, and implements high-value-added and high-level material processing of engines and medical devices, which are high-mix and low-volume. From this interview, we concluded that geographical integration is not necessarily so important and authentication is essential factor to success the entry to the aviation industry.
According to study above, we will focus on two points for future study: the role of universities as R&D promoter in aviation industrial clusters, and the evaluation of geographic integration in aviation industrial clusters.
8）Contribution to GSDM education
GSDM students attended this project and deepened their understanding of the problems concerning medium and small size enterprises as well as the economic/social role of universities.
Transportation Fee（Interview in Nigata）: about \80,000
Total: about \91,000